Questões de Inglês da FPS 2018 com Gabarito

questoes-de-ingles-da-fps-2018-com-gabarito
Questões de Inglês da FPS 2018 com Gabarito

Read TEXT 1 below and answer questions 17-19 according to it.

TEXT 1

World Health Officials Describe Progress Against Tetanus, H.I.V. and Malaria

Infant and maternal tetanus was officially eliminated from the Americas this year, the Pan American Health Organization announced on Thursday. At one time, the infection killed about 10,000 newborns annually in the Western Hemisphere; tetanus still kills about 35,000 infants around the world. It was one of several significant global health advances, including new programs against malaria and H.I.V., announced last week in conjunction with the meeting of the United Nations General Assembly in New York.

Haiti  was  the  last  country  in  the  Americas  to  eliminate  neonatal  tetanus.  That  does  not  meanr n  complete  eradication, because  the  bacteria  that  cause  tetanus  exisst  everywhere  in  soil  and  animal  droppings.  Rather,  elimmination  means  that thanks to vaccination of mothers and clean birthh procedures — less than one case occurs per 1,000 live  births.

The Americas have generally led the world in eliminating diseases for which vaccines exist. In this hemisphere, smallpox was eliminated in 1971, polio in 1994, rubella in 2015 and measles in 2016 (the diseases are sometimes reintroduced, as measles was at Disneyland in 2014, but outbreaks are usually brought quickly under control).

Also this week, the President’s Malaria Initiative said it would expand its work to new countries in West and Central Africa, protecting 90 million more people. The initiative, founded in 2005 as part of the United States Agency for International Development, has been a major force in driving down worldwide malaria deaths by about 40 percent in the past decade. The disease most often kills young children and pregnant women. The expansion in Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Niger, Sierra Leone and Burkina Faso was made possible because Congress increased funding for the initiative in fiscal year 2017, a representative said.

In his speech to the United Nations on Tuesday, President Trump praised the malaria initiative and the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief as examples of leadership in humanitarian assistance by the United States.

A combination of aid agencies, drug companies and givernments also announced that a new three-in-one antiretroviral cocktail to treat H.I.V. would soon be available to 92 countries, including virtually all of Africa, for about $75 a year. The new AIDS cocktail is the first available in poor countries to countries to contain dolutegravir, widely used in wealthy contries becouse it is highly effective and has few side effects. The pill also contains lamivudine, an older but still effective drug, and tenof disoproxil fumarate, another modern drug whose inclus effects and resistance.

Almost 37 million people in the world have H.I.V., according to Unaids, the U.N.’s AIDS-fighting agency, but fewer than 20 million are now on antiretroviral medicine, which not only saves their lives but prevents them from passing on the disease.
McNEIL Jr., Donald. Disponível em: < https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/22/health/world>

QUESTÃO 17
FPS 2018: Choose a statement that is true according to TEXT 1.

A) One can say a disease is eliminated when it is not reintroduced in a period of 5 years.
B) Eradication means only one case occurs in every 1.000 births.
C) It is possible to have an outbreak of a disease after it is considered eliminated.
D) Tetanus used to kill 35.000 infants all over the world before its official elimination.
E) The Americas are now completely free from the bacteria that causes infant tetanus.


QUESTÃO 18
FPS 2018: In “President Trump praised the malaria initiative and the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief as examples of leadership in humanitarian assistance by the United States” (paragraph 5), the word “praised” could be replaced, with no change in meaning, by all the words below BUT:

A) complimented.
B) overlooked.
C) applauded.
D) congratulated.
E) commended.


QUESTÃO 19
FPS 2018: According to TEXT 1, a new AIDS cocktail will be distributed around the world. Concerning H.I.V. treatment around the world, it is correct to affirm that:

A) This cocktail is new because it only contains recently discovered drugs and it’s the first time they are being used together.
B) President Trump announced the distribution of a new H.I.V. drug cocktail in his UN Speech, completely funded by the US Government. C) The inclusion of dolutegravir in the cocktail about to be distributed in 92 countries will mean the cost of the cocktail will drop.
D) The drugs in this new cocktail are well known, but this combination of both old and modern drugs will be made available to poor countries for the first time.
E) It is expected that the introduction of this new antiretroviral cocktail will impact 37 million people who are now using other kinds of medicine to treat AIDS.


Read TEXT 2 below and answer questions 20-21 according to it.

TEXT 2

A daily half hour's exercise could prevent 1 in 12 early deaths, study shows

People who exercise five days a week for 30 minutes significantly reduce their risk of dying early and of developing heart disease, even if a sports club or gym is not an option, according to a new international study.

Tracking 130,000 people in 17 countries, both rich and poor, the study found that whether it’s going to the gym, walking to work, or tackling household chores like laundry or gardening, being physically active extends life and reduces illness. The researchers, led by Scott Lear, a heart specialist at St Paul’s Hospital in Canada, also found a so-called dose response: The more people exercise, the greater the reductions are in their risks of getting heart disease or dying early. The study found “no ceiling effect”, the researchers said, and “no risks associated with extremely high levels of physical activity,” defined as more than 2,500 minutes, or more than 41 hours, per week.

Cardiovascular disease is the world’s leading cause of death and a major economic burden in treatment and care for those who develop it. It killed 9.48 million people globally in 2016.

“Walking for as little as 30 minutes most days of the week has a substantial benefit, and higher physical activity is associated with even lower risks,” Lear said in a comment about the findings, published on Friday in The Lancet medical journal. He also noted that some measures to prevent or treat heart disease, such as taking medicines or eating more fruit and vegetables, can be unaffordable for the world’s poorest people. Yet walking is free and brings substantial health gains.

The World Health Organization recommends that adults aged 18 to 64 do at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity throughout each week, as well as muscle strengthening exercises at least two days a week. But experts estimate almost a quarter of the world’s people do not reach these guideline levels.

Lear’s team said their study findings suggest that if the entire population were to meet the guidelines, one in 12 of the world’s premature deaths would be averted and 4.6 percent of heart disease cases prevented.
KELLAND, Kate. Disponível em: <http://www.reuters.com/article/us-puretech-health-gelesis-study/puretechs-gelesis-says-obesity-drugachieved-
weight-loss-in-study-idUSKCN1C00PD>. Acesso em 25/09/2017. Texto Adaptado.

QUESTÃO 20
FPS 2018: Conforming with TEXT 2, it is correct to affirm that:

A) Doctors pointed out that one should be careful with higher doses of exercise since it has been proven that this poses a clear risk.
B) Heart diseases are responsible for most deaths in the world and they also represent a significant financial load.
C) The research team leader commented that some preventive actions, such as a daily walking, would remain beyond the reach of those with a lower income.
D) The research states that if the world population followed the guidelines, 25% of heart diseases could be prevented.
E) Another research conducted with130.000 people in17 countries refuted the relation between exercising and avoiding early death.


QUESTÃO 21
FPS 2018: As stated by the researchers, a “dose response”(paragraph 2) stands for:

A) the safe amount of exercise you have weekly.
B) the chance of a premature death due to the lack of exercise.
C) the relationship between a combination of exercise and a higher intake of medicine.
D) a healthy combination of aerobic physical activity and muscle strengthening exercises.
E) the direct connection between the quantity of physical activity and the reduction of cardiovascular diseases.


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