UPE 2023: I ‘Besides, their right to self-determination, self-governance and control of resources and ancestral lands have been violated over centuries.’ (paragraph 3), the author is

Text 17 for questions 20, 21, and 22.
PHOTO: UN Composition with photographs by PAHO (left), Martine Perret (center) and UNICEF Ecuador-Arcos (right).
PHOTO: UN Composition with photographs by PAHO (left),
Martine Perret (center) and UNICEF Ecuador-Arcos (right).

Indigenous women are the backbone of indigenous peoples' communities and play a crucial role in the preservation and transmission of traditional ancestral knowledge. They have an integral collective and community role as carers of natural resources and keepers of scientific knowledge. Many indigenous women are also taking the lead in the defense of indigenous peoples' lands and territories and advocating for indigenous peoples' collective rights worldwide.

However, despite the crucial role indigenous women play in their communities as breadwinners, caretakers, knowledge keepers, leaders and human rights defenders, they often suffer from intersecting levels of discrimination on the basis of gender, class, ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

Indigenous women particularly suffer high levels of poverty; low levels of education and illiteracy; limitations in the access to health, basic sanitation, credit and employment; limited participation in polítical life; and domestic and sexual violence. Besides, their right to self-determination, self-governance and control of resources and ancestral lands have been violated Over centuries.

Small but significant progress has been made by indigenous women in decision-making processes in some communities, achieving leadership in communal and national roles, and stood on the protest frontlines to defend their lands and the planet's decreasing biodiversity. The reality, however, remains that indigenous women are widely under-represented, disproportionately negatively affected by decisions made on their behalf, and are too frequentiy the víctims of multiple expressions of discrimination and violence.

This International Day of Indigenous Peoples, let's reclaim the role of these heroines.
Disponível em: https://www.un.org/en/observances/
indigenous-day. Acesso em 13/06/2022. Adaptado.

QUESTÃO 21
UPE 2023: I ‘Besides, their right to self-determination, self-governance and control of resources and ancestral lands have been violated over centuries.’ (paragraph 3), the author is

a) expressing doubt relating to the previous paragraph.

b) imposing certain conditions on women. 

c) expressing an idea of time to the facts.

d) denying the rights of indigenous women.

e) adding information to support the argument.

RESOLUÇÃO:
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GABARITO:
e) adding information to support the argument.

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