CEDERJ 2019: Despite the polarization it brings about,

Fake news could ruin social media,
but there’s still hope
by: Guðrun í Jákupsstovu

Camille Francois, director of research and analysis at Graphika, told the audience of her talk at TNW Conference: “Disinformation campaigns, or fake news is a concept we’ve known about for years, but few people realize how varied the concept can be and how many forms it comes in. When the first instances of fake news started to surface, they were connected with bots. These flooded conversations with alternative stories in order to create noise and, in turn, silence what was actually being said”.

According to Francois, today’s disinformation campaigns are far more varied than just bots – and much harder to detect. For example, targeted harassment campaigns are carried out against journalists and human-rights activists who are critical of governments or big organizations.

“We see this kind of campaigns happening at large scale in countries like the Philippines, Turkey, Ecuador, and Venezuela. The point of these campaigns is to flood the narrative these people try to create with so much noise that their original message gets silenced, their reputation gets damaged, and their credibility undermined. I call this patriotic trolling.”

There are also examples of disinformation campaigns mobilizing people. This was evident during the US elections in 2016 when many fake events suddenly started popping up on Facebook. One Russian Facebook page “organized” an anti-Islam event, while another “organized” a pro-Islam demonstration. The two fake events gathered activists to the same street in Texas, leading to a stand-off.

Francois explains how amazed she is that, in spite of social media being the main medium for these different disinformation campaigns, actual people also still use it to protest properly.

If we look at countries, like Turkey – where there’s a huge amount of censorship and smear campaigns directed at human right defenders and journalists – citizens around the world and in those places still use social media to denounce corruption, to organize human rights movements and this proves that we still haven’t lost the battle of who owns social media.

This is an ongoing battle, and it lets us recognize the actors who are trying to remove the option for people to use social media for good. But everyday you still have people all over the world turning to social media to support their democratic activities. This gives me hope and a desire to protect people’s ability to use social media for good, for denouncing corruption and protecting human rights.
Adapted from: <https://thenextweb.com/socialmedia/2018/05/25/ >.
Access 09 Oct. 2018.

Glossary
bot: (short for "robot"): um programa automático que roda na Internet; to flood: inundar; trolling: fazer postagem deliberadamente ofensiva para provocar alguém; popping up: surgir, aparecer; stand-off: impasse: smear campaigns: campanhas de difamação.

Read the text above and answer the questions.

QUESTÃO 60
CEDERJ 2019: Despite the polarization it brings about,

(A) democratic activities serve only governmental purposes.

(B) disinformation campaigns may protect human rights.

(C) fake news are the only means of denouncing corruption.

(D) social media is a means of democratic expression.

QUESTÃO ANTERIOR:
CEDERJ 2019: In the text, Turkey is used as an example of a country where

GABARITO:
(D) social media is a means of democratic expression.

PRÓXIMA QUESTÃO:
- mais questões de Vestibular.

QUESTÃO DISPONÍVEL EM:
Prova CEDERJ 2019; Questões com Gabarito

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