ITA 2021: O termo startled, destacado no trecho do segundo parágrafo, “Startled by this sudden enthusiasm [...]”

As questões 31 a 33 referem-se ao texto destacado a seguir.

Since from August 1914 to November 1918 Great Britain and her Allies were fighting for civilization it cannot, I suppose, be impertinent to inquire what precisely civilization may be. “Liberty” and “Justice” have always been reckoned expensive words, but that “Civilization” could cost as much as I forget how many millions a day came as a surprise to many thoughtful taxpayers.

The story of this word’s rise to the highest place amongst British war aims is so curious that, even were it less relevant, I should be tempted to tell it [...].

“You are fighting for civilization”, cried the wisest and best of those leaders who led us into war, and the very soldiers took up the cry. “Join up, for civilization’s sake”.

Startled by this sudden enthusiasm for an abstraction in which till then politicians and recruiting-sergeants had manifested little or no interest, I, in my turn, began to cry: “And what is civilization?” I did not cry aloud, be sure:

at that time, for crying things of that sort aloud, one was sent to prison. But now that it is no longer criminal, nor unpatriotic even, to ask questions, I intend to inquire what this thing is for which we fought and for which we pay. I propose to investigate the nature of our leading war-aim. Whether my search will end in discovery and – if it does – whether what is discovered will bear any likeliness to the Treaty of Versailles remains to be seen.
BELL, Clive. Civilization: An Essay. 1ª ed. 1928.
Harmondsworth, Middlesex, UK:
Penguin Books, 1938, p. 13.

ITA 2021: O termo startled, destacado no trecho do segundo parágrafo, “Startled by this sudden enthusiasm [...]”, pode ser entendido como:

a) destroçado.
b) empolgado.
c) atônito.
d) instigado.
e) desanimado.


RESOLUÇÃO (Cursos Objetivo):
“Startled”, destacado no trecho mencionado pode ser entendido como atônito, estupefato, surpreso.

c) atônito.



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