Questões de Inglês da EsPCEx 2017 com Gabarito

Questões de Inglês da EsPCEx 2017 com Gabarito
(Escola Preparatória de Cadetes do Exército)

Questões de:
Português (01 - 20)
Física (21 - 32)
Química (33 - 44)
Redação
Matemática (01 - 20)
Geografia (21 - 32)
História (33 - 44)
Inglês (45 - 56)

PROVA DE INGLÊS

Leia o texto a seguir e responda às questões 45, 46 e 47.

How diversity makes us smarter

Decades of research by organizational scientists, psychologists, sociologists, economists and demographers show that socially diverse groups (that is, those with a diversity of race, ethnicity, gender and sexual orientation) are more innovative than homogeneous groups. It means being around people who are different from us makes us more creative, more diligent and more hardworking.

It seems obvious that a group of people with diverse individual expertise would be better than a homogeneous group at solving complex, non-routine problems. It is less obvious that social diversity should work in the same way – yet the science shows that it does. This is not only because people with different backgrounds bring new information. Simply interacting with individuals who are different forces group members to prepare better, to anticipate alternative viewpoints and to expect that reaching consensus will take effort.

Diversity of expertise confers benefits that are obvious – you would not think of building a new car without engineers, designers and quality-control experts – but what about social diversity? The same logic applies to social diversity. People who are different from one another in race, gender and other dimensions bring unique information and experiences to bear on the task at hand. A male and a female engineer might have perspectives as different from one another as an engineer and a physicist – and that is a good thing. The fact is that if you want to build teams or organizations capable of innovating, you need diversity.

Diversity enhances creativity. It encourages the search for novel information and perspectives, leading to better decision making and problem solving. Diversity can improve the bottom line of companies and lead to discoveries and breakthrough innovations. Even simply being exposed to diversity can change the way you think.
Adapted from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-diversity-makes-us-smarter/

QUESTÃO 45
(EsPCEx 2017) Which question below has its answer in paragraph 1?

[A] Why did the researchers decide to study such a context?
[B] Who studied about socially diverse groups?
[C] Where did the researchers carry out their studies?
[D] How did the researchers carry out their studies?
[E] How many people were involved in the research?

RESPOSTA.

QUESTÃO 46
(EsPCEx 2017) Choose the alternative that correctly substitutes the word yet in the sentence “It is less obvious that social diversity should work in the same way – yet the science shows that it does.” (paragraph 2).

[A] however
[B] for
[C] such as
[D] thus
[E] because

RESPOSTA.

QUESTÃO 47
(EsPCEx 2017) According to the text, choose the correct statement.

[A] It takes more than interaction with others to become a better person.
[B] Homogeneous groups work as hard as heterogeneous ones.
[C] According to science, social diversity works just like diversity of expertise.
[D] When it comes to bear on the task at hand, a male is better than a female.
[E] Solving complex problems is easier than searching for novel information.

RESPOSTA.

Leia o texto a seguir e responda às questões 48, 49 e 50.

A handwritten note from September 11

In moments of crisis, our first thoughts are usually to get in contact with the people we love. September 11, 2001, was a day when many people wanted to know that their loved ones were safe. At 9:37 a.m., the Pentagon was attacked by terrorists who crashed an airplane into the western side of the building.

Many people tried using the mobile phones that existed then, but few were successful. Franklin and Daria Gaillard (Frank and Chip) were both members of the Air Force and worked at the Pentagon. They worked in different parts of the building and had a previous agreement that they would meet at their car in the parking lot if there were any emergency.

Daria was the first to arrive at the car and wrote a note to Franklin saying “Frank - Sweetie I am okay. I’m w/ my office over by the Lyndon B. Johnson Memorial Sign. I’ll stay there till you come. Love lots & lots, Chip.” Frank found the note and was able to locate his wife in the aftermath of the attack.

What makes this story so interesting is the handwritten note. Today, in our digital culture, we have a variety of ways to let people know that we are safe. Text messages, voicemail, and different forms of social media can be used to get the information out to loved ones. In 2001, when these attacks __________(1), the cellular network was still growing and was not as robust as it is today.

This letter is just one of the many objects that The National Museum of American History __________(2) since 2001. To learn more, visit our online exhibition September 11th: Bearing Witness to History.
Adapted from http://americanhistory.si.edu/blog/handwritten-note-september-11-2001

QUESTÃO 48
(EsPCEx 2017) According to the text, choose the correct statement.

[A] Frank and Chip found a note on the western side of the building.
[B] Frank and Chip wrote a note together before the attack.
[C] Frank and Chip had a meeting at the Air Force HQ.
[D] Frank and Chip relied on pen and paper to communicate.
[E] Frank and Chip located each other using social media.

RESPOSTA.

QUESTÃO 49
(EsPCEx 2017) In the sentence “the cellular network... was not as robust as it is today” (paragraph 4), the word robust means

[A] capable of producing repeated failures in bad conditions.
[B] capable of performing without failure under a variety of conditions.
[C] capable of predicting critical weather changes in other countries.
[D] capable of creating standard responses to technical problems.
[E] capable of manufacturing its own components in bad conditions.

RESPOSTA.

QUESTÃO 50
(EsPCEx 2017) Choose the alternative containing the correct verb tenses to complete gaps (1) and (2) in paragraphs 4 and 5 respectively.

[A] have happened, collected
[B] have happened, have collected
[C] has happened, has collected
[D] happened, has collected
[E] happened, have collected

RESPOSTA.

Leia o texto a seguir e responda às questões 51, 52 e 53.

Military operations in megacities
A linguistic perspective

The challenge of conducting future military operations within megacities (cities with populations over ten million) lies in understanding the dynamic and multidimensional complexities of these urban areas. Military operations in megacities, whether combat-oriented or otherwise, will be similar to those in other urban environments, but will be complicated by factors unique to the megacity environment.

First and foremost, megacities are largely multilingual. While this can be said of large cities in general, the scale of multilingualism in megacities magnifies its effects. For instance, in New York City (NYC) – a metropolitan megacity of over eighteen million people – nine foreign languages are spoken by communities of one hundred thousand or larger. Language also plays a role in determining one’s identity and the language community in which one decides to live. For example, the majority of Russian speakers in NYC tend to live in south Brooklyn and Staten Island, while Chinese speakers tend to cluster in Manhattan and Sunset Park. In megacities, language, culture, and regional context go hand in hand and often reach beyond ethnic identities.

In order to fully understand the context of a megacity, we must understand the role of the languages used in its communities. How _____(1) language communities interact in megacities? What tensions ______(2) caused by multiple language communities in urban space? What role ______(3) language play in the power structures (government or otherwise) of megacities?
Adapted from Military Review – Jan/Feb 2016

QUESTÃO 51
(EsPCEx 2017) Choose the statement in which the word lies is used with the same meaning as in paragraph 1.

[A] He lies in the sun for too long.
[B] His skill lies in his ability to communicate.
[C] I can tell from her face that she lies.
[D] A giant crocodile lies in wait for its prey.
[E] This item always lies over for a next meeting.

RESPOSTA.

QUESTÃO 52
(EsPCEx 2017) Choose the alternative containing the correct words to respectively complete gaps (1), (2) and (3) in paragraph 3.

[A] is, does, do
[B] do, are, do
[C] are, is, do
[D] are, do, does
[E] do, are, does

RESPOSTA.

QUESTÃO 53
(EsPCEx 2017) According to the text, choose the correct statement.

[A] Urban environments are more complex than megacities.
[B] Nine languages are spoken in large cities.
[C] Language is of great concern to the military.
[D] Ethnic identities are limited by regional context.
[E] Military operations are just combat-oriented.

RESPOSTA.

Leia o texto a seguir e responda às questões 54, 55 e 56.

Woman who rescued Nigerian ‘witch-child’ beats Obama and Pope Francis to top list of world’s most inspiring people

A woman who rescued a two-year-old boy who had been cast out by his own community for being a “witch-child” has been recognised in an international list of the most inspiring people of the year. Anja Ringgren Lovén, a Danish care worker who rescued the young Nigerian boy back in February 2016, beat the likes of Pope Francis, Barack Obama and the Dalai Lama to top the list of 100 inspiring individuals compiled by German-language OOOM Magazine.

An image of Ms Lovén giving the two-year-old boy (now called Hope) some water was shared around the world, and served to highlight the work she was doing to help orphan children in Nigeria. Witch accusations is a growing problem in many African countries, especially in Nigeria, where Anja’s charity African Children’s Aid Education and Development Foundation cares for other children like Hope.

“When she saw the starving child, she acted like a human being and became an inspiration for millions,” said Georg Kindel, OOOM’s editor-in-chief, who led the jury that chose the list. Speaking today about the experience, she said: “He was the size of a little baby, my whole body froze. I was thinking of my own son when I saw the boy. For me it was clear at that moment that I would fight with all my strength for him to survive.”
Adapted from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/
worlds-most-inspiring-person-2016-ooom-anja-ringgren-lovennigeria-witch-child-a7460976.html

QUESTÃO 54
(EsPCEx 2017) Choose the best alternative that correctly substitutes the word highlight in the sentence “... served to highlight the work she was doing to help orphan children in Nigeria.” (paragraph 2).

[A] emphasize
[B] observe
[C] implement
[D] diminish
[E] console

RESPOSTA.

QUESTÃO 55
(EsPCEx 2017) When Ms Lovén says: “... my whole body froze.” (paragraph 3), she means

[A] she was feeling cold and wanted to leave.
[B] she needed help because she could not walk.
[C] she felt unhappy and wanted to go home.
[D] she didn’t want Hope to find out she was there.
[E] she became suddenly paralysed with shock.

RESPOSTA.

QUESTÃO 56
(EsPCEx 2017) According to the text, read the statements and choose the correct alternative.

I – Hope’s community didn’t want him because of a superstition.
II – Ms Lovén started helping orphan children after she met Hope.
III – Anja’s foundation cares for poor parents who have many children.
IV – George Kindel was the only person who voted for Ms Lovén.
V – Ms Lovén has a child of her own and it’s a boy.

[A] I, II and IV are correct.
[B] III and V are correct.
[C] I and V are correct.
[D] I, III and IV are correct.
[E] II, III and V are correct.

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