Questões de Inglês da FGV-SP 2020 com Gabarito

questoes-de-ingles-da-fgv-sp-2020-com-gabarito
Questões de Inglês da FGV-SP 2020 com Gabarito

Questões de:
Matemática Aplicada
Matemática
Língua Portuguesa e Literatura
Inglês
Humanas

Língua Inglesa e Interpretação de Textos

BILBIES AND FERAL CATS

More than 20 species of Australian mammals have been exterminated by feral cats. These predators, which arrived with the European settlers [colonizadores], still threaten native wildlife – and are too abundant on the mainland to eliminate, as has been achieved on some small Australian islands that were previously infested with them. But Alexandra Ross of the University of New South Wales thinks she has come up with a different way to deal with the problem. As she writes in a paper in the Journal of Applied Ecology, she is giving feline-attentiveness lessons to wild animals involved in re introduction programs, in order to try to make them more aware of the dangers of feral cats.

Many Australian mammals, though not actually extinct, are confined to fragments of cat-free habitat. That offers the possibility of taking colonists from these refuges to places where a species once existed but now is no longer found. This will, however, put the enforced migrants back in the sights of the cats that caused the problem in the first place. Training the migrants while they are in captivity, using models of cats and the sorts of sounds cats make, has proved expensive and ineffective. Ms. Ross therefore wondered whether putting them in large naturalistic enclosures might serve as a form of trainingcamp to prepare them for introduction into their new, cat-infested homes.

She tested this idea on bilbies, a small Australian mammal that superficially resembles a rabbit. She and her colleagues raised a couple of hundred bilbies in a huge enclosure that also contained five feral cats. As a control, she raised a nearly identical population in a similar enclosure without the cats. She left the animals to get on with their lives for two years, which, given that bilbies breed four times a year and live for around eight years, was a substantial period for them. After some predation and presumably some learning she selected 21 bilbies from each enclosure, fitted radio transmitters to them and released them into a third enclosure that had ten hungry cats in it. She then monitored what happened next.

The upshot [resultado, conclusão] was that the training worked. Over the subsequent 40 days, ten of the untrained animals were eaten by cats, but only four of the trained ones. One particular behavioral difference she noticed was that bilbies brought up in a predator-free environment were much more likely to sleep alone than were those brought up around cats. And when cats are around, sleeping alone is dangerous. 5 How the bilbies that have undergone this extreme training will survive in the wild remains to be seen. But Ms. Ross has at least provided reason for hope.
Adapted from The Economist, May 18th 2019.

QUESTÃO 31
(FGV-SP 2020) With respect to the feral cats of Australia, which of the following does the article least support?

A) In some parts of Australian territory, they do not threaten small native animals.

B) Their inability to swim has saved certain native Australian mammals from extinction.

C) Certain natural barriers have prevented them from killing even more native Australian wildlife.

D) They would probably not be a problem in Australia if Europeans had never gone there.

E) At the moment, no viable method exists to get rid of Australia’s entire feral cat population.

GABARITO E RESOLUÇÃO.

QUESTÃO 32
(FGV-SP 2020) In paragraph 1, the phrase “…a different way to deal with the problem” most likely refers to the fact that Alexandra Ross

A) believes she has found an effective method to significantly reduce the feral cat population on the Australian mainland.

B) is teaching bilbies specific techniques for avoiding feral cats.

C) is introducing into selected environments a new kind of bilbie that will naturally repel feral cats.

D) is establishing permanent colonies of small wild animals in safe, cat-free environments.

E) is trying to help small wild animals develop skills to protect themselves from feral cats.

GABARITO E RESOLUÇÃO.

QUESTÃO 33
(FGV-SP 2020) The information in the article most supports which of the following?

A) Because feral cats are not native to Australia, no wild animals there have defenses against them.

B) Because of Australia’s unique eco-system, non-native predators are more destructive there than they are in other parts of the world.

C) In general, re-introducing small, unprepared animals into certain Australian areas merely provides food for feral cats.

D) Australia’s history proves that re-introducing unprepared wildlife into their former habitats can never be successful.

E) Alexandra Ross’s experiment shows that it is more practical to set up re-introduction programs for small animals than for large animals.

GABARITO E RESOLUÇÃO.

QUESTÃO 34
(FGV-SP 2020) In the context of paragraph 2, the term “enforced migrants” most likely refers to which of the following?

A) Animals that are transferred from a safe environment and reintroduced into an unsafe environment.

B) Domestic cats brought to Australia by European settlers.

C) The more than 20 species of Australian mammals driven to extinction by feral cats.

D) The various Australian animal species that have escaped extinction by being moved to safe habitats.

E) The feral cats that have been eliminated from some of Australia’s small islands.

GABARITO E RESOLUÇÃO.

QUESTÃO 35
(FGV-SP 2020) According to the information in the article, Alexandra Ross

A) believed that the only way to keep small animals safe from feral cats was to expose them to feral cats.

B) discovered that feral cats tend to avoid attacking bilbies with which they are unfamiliar.

C) proved that training small animals with stuffed models and recorded cat sounds can only be effective when performed in a controlled environment.

D) wanted to see what would happen if she exposed bilbies to varying numbers of feral cats in relatively natural environments.

E) not only demonstrated the ineffectiveness of a traditional scientific method but also developed a viable new substitute for that method.

GABARITO E RESOLUÇÃO.

QUESTÃO 36
(FGV-SP 2020) According to the information in the article, which of the following is most likely not an aspect of Alexandra Ross’s experiment?

A) It lasted for a relatively brief period, less than two years.

B) At the beginning, some of the bilbies were exposed to the predation of feral cats; others were not.

C) At one point, a total of 42 bilbies were exposed to the same predatory feral cats.

D) Some of the bilbies were sacrificed in the interest of science.

E) In the last part of the experiment, feral cats were allowed to kill as many bilbies as they could.

GABARITO E RESOLUÇÃO.

QUESTÃO 37
(FGV-SP 2020) Which of the following is most supported by the information in the article?

A) Although Alexandra Ross’s experiment was successful, it offers no guarantee that bilbies will now be able to avoid their imminent extinction.

B) During Alexandra Ross’s experiment, the scientists noted that untrained bilbies attracted the attention of more feral cats than did trained bilbies.

C) On-site radical training is the key to saving small animals from extinction.

D) Releasing European cats into Australia’s eco-system caused many small animals to drastically change their sleeping habits.

E) Bilbies with no knowledge of predators show a lesser tendency to sleep together.

GABARITO E RESOLUÇÃO.

QUESTÃO 38
(FGV-SP 2020) The tone of the article can best be described as

A) rigorously detailed and scientific.
B) positive but cautious.
C) triumphant and congratulatory.
D) hopeful yet skeptical.
E) cold and intellectual.

GABARITO E RESOLUÇÃO.

THE LEOPOLD MUSEUM
By Thomas Trenkler

Numerous important art collectors lived in Vienna until Adolf Hitler seized power in March 1938. The most important among them were Alphonse Rothschild, Prince Franz Josef II of Liechtenstein, the industrial magnate Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer, the librettist Fritz Grünbaum as well as the dentist Heinrich Rieger, who treated the destitute Egon Schiele in exchange for pictures. All of them were forced to emigrate or were murdered in the concentration camps. The tradition of upper-middle-class patronage was generally not continued after World War II, and few new private collectors emerged. Among those who did, Rudolf Leopold stood out from the rest. By the mid-1980s, his collection – primarily Austrian art from the Biedermeier period (1815-1848) to Expressionism (the early decades of the 20th century) – highlighted the deficiencies of the Austrian state collections.

Rudolf Leopold was born in Vienna in 1925, studied medicine in the post-war years, received his medical degree in 1953, and finally specialized in ophthalmology. In 1947 he began to attend lectures on art history and to collect works of the 19th century. At an auction [leilão] in 1950, he happened upon [encontrou por acaso] a forgotten catalogue of Egon Schiele’s works, which had been published by the art dealer Otto Kallir-Nirenstein. Until 1938, Kallir-Nirenstein had exhibited at his Neue Gallerie pictures by the most important Austrian artists of the modern period. Rudolf Leopold was excited by the radical visual language of Schiele (1890-1918), whose art had been labeled “pornographic" in his own day. Leopold cared little about the lack of interest that the international art world showed for Schiele and the disparaging [de menosprezo] opinion that most art historians held of his work. He acquired practically every work of Schiele he could lay his hands on.

Leopold’s passion for collecting, which his wife Elizabeth shared, grew ever larger, bordering on fanaticism. In addition, he expanded the focus of his collection to Jugendstil, an Austrian art period that flowered from the end of World War I until just after World War II. Leopold took out considerable bank loans, offering masterpieces in his collection as collateral. His spacious home in the Viennese suburb of Grinzing slowly turned into an art warehouse. Thousands of drawings were stored on cabinets and under beds, and multiple layers of paintings leaned against the walls. Because his house was filled far beyond capacity and the mountain of debt had assumed dangerous levels, Leopold considered selling his collection to the Republic of Austria. In March 1989, on the occasion of the groundbreaking exhibition “Egon Schiele and his Time,” Chancellor [chief minister of the Austrian state] Franz Vranitzky announced that negotiations for the acquisition of the collection would begin.

For a long time the negotiations failed to produce a satisfying result: Leopold’s expectations far exceeded the amount that had been considered by the government. Furthermore, Leopold was unwilling to have his collection added to the holdings of a museum of Austrian modern art, demanding instead that his life’s work be preserved as a distinct whole. Hans Dichand, the publisher of the newspaper Kronen Zeitung, turned out to be a powerful ally. The widely read daily repeatedly called for the purchase of the collection.

However, in 1992 the Kronen Zeitung, together with the Freedom Party, launched a huge campaign against the government’s planned construction of the MuseumsQuartier complex, which, even with downsizing, seemed too expensive. But Erhard Busek, then the minister of science, solved the impasse by linking the two projects: in October 1993 the government announced that it would establish a separate Leopold Museum within the MuseumsQuartier, which thus, to a certain extent, owes its existence to Rudolf Leopold. Since he had insisted on a new building for his vast collection, even the Kronen Zeitung had to accept Busek’s solution.

In the early summer of 1994, after more bargaining, Leopold agreed to transfer his entire collection to a foundation and, in return, to receive 160 million euros in a series of annual, indexed partial payments until May 2007. And in September 2001, scarcely three months after the official opening of the MuseumsQuartier, the Leopold Museum opened as well.
Adapted from the book The Vienna Hofburg.

QUESTÃO 39
(FGV-SP 2020) According to the information in the article,

A) Rudolf Leopold was one of the few pre-war private art collectors in Austria who continued to invest heavily in art after World War II.

B) World War II obliterated Austria’s vigorous art world.

C) Before World War II, Vienna’s important art collectors were Jews whom the Nazis later persecuted.

D) After World War II, Rudolf Leopold concentrated on art and artists that the Austrian government had in large part neglected.

E) Before World War II, the dentist Heinrich Rieger was Austria’s most important collector of Egon Schiele’s paintings.

GABARITO E RESOLUÇÃO.

QUESTÃO 40
(FGV-SP 2020) With respect to Rudolf Leopold, the information in the article most supports which of the following?

A) An accidental discovery changed his life.

B) His medical training – especially in ophthalmology – gave him an expert eye for great but misunderstood art.

C) If Hitler had not annexed Austria in 1938, Rudolf Leopold might never have discovered his artistic passion.

D) He was unaffected and untroubled by the so-called “pornographic” elements in Egon Schiele’s paintings.

E) After many years of fighting, he succeeded in convincing the international art world of Egon Schiele’s importance.

GABARITO E RESOLUÇÃO.

QUESTÃO 41
(FGV-SP 2020) In paragraph 3, the phrase “…offering masterpieces in his collection as collateral” most likely refers to

A) a common practice by which a bank accepts a valuable work of art as payment for a loan.

B) Rudolf Leopold’s method for getting more bank loans to buy more works of art.

C) Rudolf Leopold’s skillful buying and selling of art masterpieces to drive their prices up.

D) Rudolf Leopold’s fame as an art collector, which helped him to convince bankers to lend him more and more money.

E) Rudolf Leopold’s ability to recognize great but neglected works of art and to buy them at an excellent price.

GABARITO E RESOLUÇÃO.

QUESTÃO 42
(FGV-SP 2020) According to the information in the article, because Rudolf Leopold and wife had an almost fanatical desire to collect art,

A) the value of Egon Schiele’s paintings began to rise considerably.

B) their home in Grinzing attracted the worldwide attention of people interested in Austrian art from the Biedermeier, Expressionist, and Jungendstil periods.

C) they eventually converted their home into an art warehouse and moved to a new home nearby.

D) they lost track of exactly how many paintings by Egon Schiele they possessed.

E) they found themselves facing the prospect of serious financial problems.

GABARITO E RESOLUÇÃO.

QUESTÃO 43
(FGV-SP 2020) Which of the following is most likely one reason that, as mentioned in paragraph 4, “…the negotiations failed to produce a satisfying result“?

A) When negotiations began, Egon Schiele was still regarded by most art critics and historians as a painter of little importance.

B) For many months, Rudolf Leopold kept trying to raise the price that he wanted for his collection.

C) Rudolf Leopold insisted that his art collection must not share space with any other works of art.

D) The Kronen Zeitung newspaper, together with the Freedom Party, launched a campaign against the construction of new museums in Vienna.

E) Rudolf Leopold refused to allow parts of collection to be placed in museums outside Vienna.

GABARITO E RESOLUÇÃO.

QUESTÃO 44
(FGV-SP 2020) According to the information in the article,

A) at the last minute, the Kronen Zeitung newspaper reversed itself and announced its opposition to the planned MuseumsQuartier.

B) at first, the Austrian government planned to build the Leopold Museum outside the MuseumsQuartier.

C) if Rudolf Leopold had not insisted on a separate building for his art collection, the MuseumsQuartier might never have become a reality.

D) Although Erhard Busek was the minister of science, he also possessed ample knowledge and understanding of fine art and architecture.

E) the excellent personal relationship between Rudolf Leopold and Hans Dichand was fundamental in guaranteeing the construction of the MuseumsQuartier and the Leopold Museum.

GABARITO E RESOLUÇÃO.

QUESTÃO 45
(FGV-SP 2020) With respect to the story of the art collector Rudolf Leopold, the information in the article most likely supports which of the following statements?

A) Art and politics is an explosive combination.

B) Without large sums of money, there can be no art.

C) In art there are neither rewards nor punishments – there are consequences.

D) In art, one man’s poison can be another man’s meat.

E) All art is immoral.

GABARITO E RESOLUÇÃO.

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